CONDITIONS OF WORK AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING
The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right to work, which includes the right of everyone to the opportunity to gain his living by work which he freely chooses or accepts, and will take appropriate steps to safeguard this right. From Article 6, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of just and favourable conditions of work. From Article 7, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure:
(a) The right of everyone to form trade unions and join the trade union of his choice, subject only to the rules of the organization concerned, for the promotion and protection of his economic and social interests. From Article 8, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
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Section III of the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) generally evaluates achievement under Articles 6-8 in terms of: freedom of choice and equal access to paid employment and vocational training, safe working conditions, adequate wages, and the opportunity to advocate for progressively better working conditions through participation in trade unions or other professional associations. The paid labour force has changed tremendously over a relatively short period of time. The technological revolution, globalization, and the ability of transnational corporations to influence economic and social policy have combined to confront governments, trade unions, and other labour organizations with new challenges. On one hand, many of the work opportunities in Canada today are safer and offer more flexibility to workers; at the same time, however, employment is less secure and often provides fewer benefits. Furthermore, a shrinking middle class has resulted in increased polarization in wages and standard of living between "professional" and "blue-collar" workers. Recent amendments to Provincial labour legislation in Ontario, have been identified by labour unions and social welfare groups as an attack against organized labour, and policies that protect workers against exploitation.